History of Federalism in Pakistan(1947 to 2010):From Centralization towards Provincial Autonomy
Keywords:Federalism, Constitution, Provincial autonomy, Pakistan
Federalism is the that type of government System that guarantee the constitutional
division of powers among the central government and its units in such a manner that
these two sets of government functions to achieve common goals. Federalism is better for
a heterogeneous society with a huge area, because it ensures a great deal of sovereignty
of the federating units. Thus, ethnic and cultural identities get safeguard and prosperity
through self-government.Pakistani federal structures have been controversial since
independence. After its independence Pakistan adopted a very centralized federal system
under the amended 1935 Act as interim constitution. The various constitutions
promulgated in the country, namely, constitution of 1956 and 1962 have also established
a centralized system of government with a strong focus on the authorities of the centre.
The four military governments that have half of the country's life have aggravated the
problem of central government. Theresult was poorgovernance and many catastrophe
and conflicts. The succeeding central government always tried to resolve these issues
&conflicts through unconstitutional means such as the use of power.These attempts have
complicated the situation & led to complex crises. As a result, the country was disbanded
in 1971. Learning from history, and to avoid such accidents the 1973 constitution was
framed by all political parties consent within the parliament. The constitution of 1973,
promised a self-governing federal parliamentary system in the provinces guaranteeing
basic rights and independence of the judiciary. Unfortunately, the 1973 Constitution was
never implemented in its real sense, and moreover themilitary dictators later became more centralized. To address this imbalance in the federal structure and to establish
federalism in its true spirit the 18th constitutional amendment was introduced in 2010.
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